Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IOT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data.

The Internet of Things (IOT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data. In 2013 the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IOT -GSI) defined the IOT as the infrastructure of the information society. The IOT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit . When IOT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the existing Internet infrastructure. Experts estimate that the IOT will consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020.

Internet of Things realizes transparent, dynamic, and intelligent management by identifying, controlling remote objects and Information Sharing. This can be widely applied in intelligent transportation, environmental protection, safe home, intelligent fire, and other fields. In Internet of Things space, the attribute and spatial information of product can flow smoothly in different links from production, transportation, sales, to marketing. For example, consumers can get any information about breeding ground, varieties,feeding, transportation of agricultural and livestock products through Internet of Things. Furthermore, with the higher logistics level, e-commerce will get further development, in favor of small quantities of flexible production development.

Internet of Things make physical world ‘talk’ to people initiatively, so human ability of perceiving environment enhance greatly and ‘interactive’ features between behavior and the environment is prominent. For example, in Internet era, network information affects tourists’ route design before travel. However, in Internet of Things era, the relevant effects can occur during the play. Visitors can choose and design route in scenic spot by obtaining information from Internet of Things.

IoT1Internet of Things brings a new round of changes in urban space. Urban transport, housing, work and leisure functions, the interaction of urban space, location freedom,and urban renewal will be significantly affected. Combining cloud computing, next-generation communications networks, and intelligent data mining technology, Internet of Things help forming smart city by making physical and informational resources integrate systematically. Based on Internet of Things, city show ‘overall dispersion, the central tendency of advantages’ trend: On one hand, city’s central area information gathering and dispersal ability is strengthening, so city agglomeration trend will enhance;

On the other hand, with the improvement of logistic ability, information diffusion ability, and guideline function of internal space, the city show a trend of proliferation.

Process of the Internet of things working can be divided into 3 functional modules: information collection, information transmission and information processing. Its essence is to use the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, through the Internet, telecommunication network to realize automatic identification of objects and information on the Internet and sharing. Work of the Internet of things can consist of three processes:

1) The object of identification and recognition. Networking information acquisition is mainly through the radio frequency identification (RFID);

2) Process of the information transmission. Information transmission can be divided into two kinds: a wired transmission and wireless transmission;

3) The center of intelligent processing. The center is mainly on the collection of information and data, conversion, and according to the analysis of the specific needs of the user’s information and event trigger. At the same time background is according to the specific service which is content to be arranged in the consolidation of these data, and is according to the user and the corresponding response trigger events.

IPv6’s huge increase in address space is an important factor in the development of the Internet of Things. According to Steve Leibson, who identifies himself as “occasional docent at the Computer History Museum,” the address space expansion means that we could “assign an IPV6 address to every atom on the surface of the earth, and still have enough addresses left to do another 100+ earths.” In other words, humans could easily assign an IP address to every “thing” on the planet. An increase in the number of smart nodes, as well as the amount of upstream data the nodes generate, is expected to raise new concerns about data privacy, data sovereignty and security.


Network layer, has several properties. Requirements security of sensor storage, processing and transmitting information and prevents unauthorized accessing even illegal operation, called confidentiality. Asked to each node which participate in information processing is authentic reliable, call authenticity. Requests the transmission of information has not been tampered or destroyed without authorization, with along integrity. Request every gateway working and provide best services, as availability. The sending and receiving data must be latest and updated, not the attacker modifing, definition as Data Fresh. In addition, with the characteristics of low-cost, disposable, unattended, sensors are easy damaged, broken up and physical access even controlled. Therefore, wireless sensor network require scalability and false tolerance. Or in such circumstances like some nodes working abnormal, adding new nodes and adjust nodes, like maintaining a large number error-prone and easily controlled sensors’ network that requires infinite self-organization and automatically network. Then, the properties of network that have relationship shown in above figure:


The relationship between Internet of Things and Internet is inseparable and complementary. However, not the same in the form of network organization and in network functionality and in performance requirements of the two networks. Internet–based on the priority management typical characteristic make it not very require safe, reliable, controllable and manageable. But, Internet of Things heavily dependent on some aspects includeing real-time, safe and reliable, resource assurance.

Along with Internet of Things brings new technologies rising, Information security escape from periods which are traditional virus infections, hackers and misusing of resources, forward a complex and diverse, comprehensive interactive period. In addition, Internet of Things mainly consists of sensor network and M2M parts which can be seen as sensor module and network layer constitute a large network together.  One point should be taken seriously, massive levels of network terminals and signal source exposed in a public place, if the network transmission control system or software have problems, the consequences is very serious. Currently, Internet ‘s development encounter two big system bottlenecks problems , one is the IPv4 address is not enough, the other is the network itself security.Through IPv6 resolve address deficiencies, however, there isn’t a good solution for the current network security. In a word, network manageable, controlled and service quality issues are not deal well, to achieve accurate, efficient, real-time network signal transmission is castles in the air, and will affect the further development.

Wireless sensor network’s characteristics present new challenges in information security area. Along with one-time, unattended, wireless communications, low-cost and resourceconstrained ,sensors easily appear to abnormalities, physical attacks by attackers, Trojan attacks, virus damage, keys decryption, DOS, eavesdropping and traffic analysis are really threats. The trouble is a challenge that design of key storage,distribution, encryption and decryption mechanism caused by wireless sensor network ‘s large and resource constraints.

In the traditional system, network layer security and application layer security is independent, just as communication between the leaderships and communication between the secretaries is different. Internet of Things is on the basis of the existing mobile network platform integrate sensor networks and Internet that make large amount of special problem of it. This situation can be said combine with leadership and secretary. Therefore, most of the mobile network communication system can still be applied to Internet of Things and provide security as authentication encryption and mechanisms. However, according to the characteristics of the network layer, we need to adjust the system and add functions. For example :1)sensor network gateway nodes out of control ,2)network ‘s DOS attacks to sensor network nodes, 3) interference, tampering and destruction to the network signal, 4) the problems including identified large number of sensor nodes, identification, certification and control.



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